A (ampere)

Denotes the current intensity and thus the unit of measurement of the electrode flow in the electrical circuit.


When the electrical voltage and current density are sufficiently high, a plasma arc is created. The gas discharge forms a plasma gas that is passed through the nozzle on the torch and constricted as an arc at the tip of the nozzle. During plasma cutting, a high-heat and high-energy arc separates all conductive metals.



The term cathode is used because of the negative charge of the „non-fusing electrode“ of the plasma torch. Occasionally, it is also called "electrode“.


The abbreviation CNC stands for ""Computerized Numerical Control"" and is an electronic method for the regulation and control of machine tools or also guiding systems."

Control Gas (KG)

This gas is led to the torch head and controls the presence of the protection cap which is situated there. Consequently, the plasma cutting system can only be started if the torch is installed properly.

Contour Cut

Contour Cut is a further development of the HiFocus technology especially for cutting small contours in mild steel. In particular holes with a diameter to thickness ratio of 1:1 are cut with highest quality.

play_arrow see also HiFocus

Contour Cut Speed

With Contour Cut Speed contours can be cut at similar quality up to 50% faster. Due to the shorter processing time the costs per cutting metre are reduced.

Cooling system

There are various types of torch cooling systems using secondary gases or liquid cooling (Kjellfrost).


A CUTBUS is used for the data transfer of technology parameters from the guiding system to the height control unit.

play_arrow see also Hight control

Cutting Gas (SG)

The cutting gas is electrically conductive because of the ionization and can create the main arc between cathode and work-piece. The energy of the arc makes the material melt and the flow rate of the cutting gas drives it out of the kerf. In order to achieve optimum cutting results different cutting gases are used according to material type and thickness (for example: ignition gas air with cutting gas oxygen or ignition gas argon with cutting gas argon/hydrogen, argon/hydrogen/nitrogen, argon/nitrogen).





The term digitisation refers to the increasing use of networked, digital technologies, contents and information within production or work processes. This is especially true for the development in industry, whether in vehicle design, mechanical engineering or the transport sector. Digitisation allows the intelligent control of production processes in Industry 4.0, and thus more effective manufacturing processes.

play_arrow See also Industry 4.0


In chemistry, dissociation is the excited or self-acting process in which chemical compounds separate into two or more molecules, atoms or ions. The dissociation energy is the energy which is required to separate the chemical compound.


The drop-shaped adherence at the bottom cutting edge is called dross.

play_arrow see also Quality parameters, fused metal



play_arrow See cathode


Enthalpy is the amount of thermal energy which is released (exothermic) or consumed (endothermic) during a process which takes place at constant pressure.


Being industry 4.0-compatible plasma cutting systems, the power sources of the Q series offer different location-independent eServices which are available for the Kjellberg service department but also for the customer. They result in considerable overall time and cost savings: monitoring and control of real-time information regarding the power source and its components as well as the cutting process (eMonitoring), error analysis and prognosis of pending service tasks (eDiagnosis), installation of the latest software and cutting data (eUpdate). Via the browser-based user interface Q-Desk the customer has an extensive overview of the current status of the machine and the cutting process as well as access to further information (FAQs, video tutorials etc.).


Fibre laser

Fibre lasers of the XFocus series of Kjellberg are compact systems. They consist of the laser source with optical fiber, an integrated cooling unit, the control unit with technology database, an automatic gas supply, axis with height control and the laser cutting head with automatic focus.

play_arrow See also XFocus

Fused metal

Fused metal, also referred to as “dross”, is the solidified metal at the lower edge of the cut.

play_arrow See also Dross




Gas supply

With regard to the gas supply in plasma cutting systems, a distinction is made between a primary gas used to produce the plasma and the secondary gas, which is an inert gas used for cooling, blowing out the molten metal and shielding the arc. The primary gases are compressed air, nitrogen N2, oxygen O2, nitrogen/hydrogen N2H2 (90/10) and argon/hydrogen ArH2. Secondary gases can be nitrogen, compressed air, carbon dioxide and water.

play_arrow See also Primary gas
play_arrow See also Secondary gas

Gas swirl ring (insulator)

The gas swirl ring causes the plasma gas to swirl so that it produces a kind of eddy current. This swirling serves to centre the arc on the electrode and to constrict and control the arc as it emerges from the nozzle.

play_arrow See also Arc
play_arrow See also Swirl gas (WG)


Height Control

Height control units have a great influence on the quality of plasma cuts. They guarantee the right distance between the nozzle of the plasma torch and the work-piece and keep it constant.


HiFocus is a cutting technology developed by Kjellberg Finsterwalde which uses a swirl gas to constrict the plasma beam very strongly. An excellent cutting quality can be achieved (laser-like); the cut surfaces are nearly vertical. The plasma series with the same name HiFocus meets the highest standards within the cutting range from 0.5 to 160 mm. The units of this series can flexibly used on CNC guiding systems, pipe cutting machines or robots, also for bevel or underwater cutting.

HiFocus F

HiFocus F is a cutting technology suitable for flying cutting start. The pilot arc does not need to be ignited above the material but ignition can take place beyond. After the torch has been moved towards the workpiece and the pilot arc has touched the material, the main arc is formed automatically.

play_arrow See also Pilot arc

HiFocus neo

HiFocus neo allows high cutting speed and very good cutting quality at low process costs. The user benefits from low gas consumption, robust copper cathodes and an optimised technology that increases the lifetime of the consumables. Thus, plasma cutting becomes even more efficient.

Hole piercing

The term hole piercing refers to the cutting option for plasma cutting in which a hole is burned into the workpiece using the arc.


A variety of indirect plasma cutting (use of an auxiliary anode, for example a welding wire) for cutting interrupted structures or insulating materials.

play_arrow See also Indirect plasma cutting


Identification Gas (IG)

This gas is the control gas that is returned from the plasma torch. It serves to identify the different torch heads.

Ignition Gas (ZG)

This gas is used for the ignition of the plasma arc. It's function is to facilitate the ignition process. It can have a positive influence on the lifetime of the cathode.

Indirect Plasma Cutting

In contrast to direct plasma cutting the arc is not transferred. The nozzle serves as anode instead of the work-piece.

play_arrow See also HotWire

Inert gases

These are stable, inert gases, for example nitrogen (N2), which exhibit no chemical reaction.

Industry 4.0

Industry 4.0 refers to the industrial revolution which essentially focuses on linking and networking, automation, automatic control, learning and real-time data of machines. Industry 4.0 links production and operating processes to intelligent digital technologies and integrates business processes, equipment and IT systems. Our latest power sources of the Q series are used for modern, digitalised production processes. With their new components and particularly the operator interface Q-Desk they meet the complex requirements of Industry 4.0.

play_arrow See also Digitisation
play_arrow See also Q


InFocus is a high-performance technology for TIG welding developed by Kjellberg Finsterwalde. Due to the strongly concentrated arc, it is economically possible to join nearly all thick and thin steels and non-ferrous metals. With the high-quality and even seam surfaces that can be achieved, InFocus is predestined for automated applications.

play_arrow See also Trailing shield


Ionization is the process of removing one or more electrons from an atom or moleule so that the atom or molecule is left as positively charged ion (cation). The reverse process where a positively charged atom or molecule catches an electron is called recombination.


play_arrow See Gas swirl ring and Swirl gas





play_arrow See Cooling system


Marking Gas (MG)

The gas used for marking with plasma is called marking gas.



The job of the plasma cutting nozzle is to constrict and focus the arc in order to increase the energy density and speed of the plasma jet. Nozzles have a precisely dimensioned bore hole and geometry, whose diameter determines the maximum current for cutting.

play_arrow See also Nozzle distance
play_arrow See also Arc

Nozzle distance

The nozzle distance refers to the distance between the nozzle in the torch and the workpiece surface.




Pilot Arc

The pilot arc is responsible for the ignition of the main arc. It has low energy and ensures the beginning ionization of the path between the plasma torch and the work-piece. This can have a positive influence on the lifetime of the cathode.


Plasma is a gaseous mixture of electrically charged ions, electrons and neutral atoms or molecules which, while it is electrically neutral overall, conducts electricity.

Plasma carrier gas

play_arrow See Primary gas

Plasma Gas (PG)

All gases or gas mixtures which can be used for creating the plasma beam and carrying out the cutting process are called plasma gases. There are two phases of the plasma arc: the ignition phase and the cutting phase. Consequently, plasma gases can be divided into ignition gases and cutting gases. They can differ in type as well as volume flow.

Plasma Gouging

Plasma Gouging is a process for removing material by using a plasma arc.

Plasma (fusion) cutting

Plasma cutting is a thermal cutting process in which a gas jet in the plasma state is used to melt material and blow it out of the joint. The electrode is in a water or air-cooled gas nozzle in the torch. The plasma gas is passed through the nozzle and constricted at its tip as an arc. The highly heated plasma jet also has a very high speed. When the plasma jet encounters the workpiece, the heat is transferred to the workpiece and the material is melted and pressed out of the kerf.

PLUS Technology

The PLUS technology was developed by Kjellberg Finsterwalde in order to make vertical cuts possible. Whereas conventional plasma cutting produces cut surfaces with a slight inclination, this can be avoided with the PLUS technology, thus creating vertical cut surfaces. Choosing the correct cutting direction (outer contours to the right, inner contours to the left) guarantees that the vertical cut surface is always in cutting direction right and thus at the finished product and not at the waste part.

play_arrow See also Quality parameters

Primary gas

Used to generate the plasma arc and to pass it to the workpiece.

play_arrow See also Gas supply


Q plasma cutting systems

Our latest series combines precise plasma cutting at an extraordinary level with the complex requirements on a digitalised production. The industry 4.0-capable power sources convince with excellent cutting quality and allow, inter alia, the real-time communication of the plant components with each other and the process data exchange of networked machines with each other.

play_arrow See also Industry 4.0


play_arrow see Quality Parameters

Quality Parameters

When using thermal separation processes, the quality of cut surfaceswhen using thermal separation processes is determined by the rectangularity or inclination tolerance and the average surface roughness. Additionally, the groove lag, the initial fusing of the upper edge and the possible dross or drop formation at the bottom edge of the work-piece can be considered. These parameters are stipulated by the standard DIN EN ISO 9013.

play_arrow See also dross




Sealing Gas (SpG)

Sealing gas is a swirl gas with reduced volume flow that is used for underwater plasma cutting during cutting stops. It prevents the water from getting into the torch head while the torch is underwater.

play_arrow See also Swirl Gas

Secondary gas

Shielding gas for cooling, blowing out the molten material and shielding the arc. Nitrogen, compressed air, carbon dioxide and water can be used as secondary gases.

Smart Factory

Smart Factory is the term for a digitised production environment. The networking of the machines and the information thus obtained allows not only to automate the manufacturing processes completely but also to control and optimise them. The idea of smart factories includes further to establish and expand future interfaces with external systems or other smart factories on the basis of the digitisation of information and processes and, thus, to create a location-independent virtual production. Kjellberg Finsterwalde provides the first industry 4.0-compatible plasma cutting systems worldwide – the power sources of the Q series.

Smart Focus

Smart Focus is one of our latest plasma cutting series for the CNC-guided plasma cutting – even under challenging conditions. With just a few settings the plasma units Smart Focus 130, 200 and 300 achieve best results in the cutting range from 1 to 80 mm. For cutting mild steel the proven Contour Cut technology is applied.

play_arrow See also Contour Cut

Swirl Gas (WG)

This gas covers the plasma beam. It further contributes to improving the cutting quality because it constricts and cools the arc additionally and protects the consumables during piercing and underwater cutting. Here, too, different gases can be used.


Trailing shield

Trailing shields are used for the InFocus welding process as secondary gas protection of the finished weld seam. Being indivually formed, they also prevent a reaction of the material with the surrounding air when joining pipes or welding pipe-to-flange joints.

play_arrow See also InFocus